The potential of early parent-child interactions for children’s development is widely acknowledged (e. g. NICHD-ECCRN, 2003; Lehrl et al., 2020). However, little is known about the internal structure and potential interrelations of different features of these interactions. In longitudinal educational research a general factor approach to parent-child interaction is commonly used in statistical analyses (e. g. Linberg et al., 2020; Weinert et al., 2017).
Drawing on the general “SSCO model of learning environments” (Bäumer et al., 2011) as well as approaches in other educational contexts like preschool, which confirm a three dimensional structure in group-settings (e. g. Bihler et al., 2018), the differentiation of two dimensions of parental interaction behavior (cognitive stimulation and emotional support) is proposed for the dyadic setting. This model builds on, both theoretical (e. g. Bornstein, 2002) and empirical (e. g. Landry et al., 2008) foundations. So far, only a few investigations have studied the factorial structure of early parent-child interactions (e. g. Linberg, 2018).
The following research question leads the investigation: “Is there empirical support for a differentiated structure of parental interaction behavior in the NEPS-SC1 observational data of parent-child interactions?”
Using observational data from the first three waves of NEPS-SC1 (N = 739) the proposition is evaluated through longitudinal structural equation modeling. Preliminary results favor a two-factor model of parental interactional behavior in the all three waves (Χ2 (38) = 186.92, p < .0001, CFI = .952, RMSEA = .073, AIC = 18614.807, BIC = 18854.283) over a general factor model (Χ2 (52) = 304.48, p < .0001, CFI = .924, RMSEA = .081, AIC = 18704.371, BIC = 18879.373). Further development, implications and potential difficulties of this approach are discussed. Differential modeling of parent-child interactions adds value to the assessment of specific effects of its dimensions on different domains of child development as well as, both the questions of timing and of potential interaction effects between behavior dimensions, under a longitudinal perspective (e. g. Vallotton et al., 2017).
Metacognitive monitoring is an important predictor of academic achievement and is assumed to be related to language competences. Hence, it may explain academic performance differences between native and non-native speaking students. We compared metacognitive monitoring between native and non-native speaking fourth graders (~10 years olds) in two studies. In Study 1, we matched 30 native and 30 non-native speakers and assessed their monitoring in the context of a paired-associates task, including a recognition test and confidence judgements. Study 1 revealed that recognition and metacognitive monitoring did not differ between native and non-native speaking children. In Study 2, we matched 36 native and 36 non-native speakers and assessed their monitoring with the same paired-associates task. Additionally, we included a text comprehension task with open-ended questions and confidence judgments. We replicated the findings of Study 1, suggesting that recognition and metacognitive monitoring does not necessarily differ between native and non-native speakers. However, native speaking students answered more open-ended questions correctly, than non-native speaking students did. Nevertheless, the two groups did not differ in monitoring of their answers to open-ended questions. Our results indicate that native and non-native speaking children may monitor equally well, independent of task performance and characteristics. In conclusion, deficits in metacognitive monitoring may not be the primary source of the academic performance differences between native and non-native speaking students. In a future project, based on the NEPS Starting Cohort 2, we aim to clarify the role of language competences for the development of metacognitive skills and academic achievement. This may contribute to a better understanding of academic performance differences between native and non-native speaking students.
Previous research shows gender differences in mathematical and reading competencies as early as elementary school (e.g., Niklas & Schneider, 2012; Robinson & Lubienski, 2011). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relevance of teachers’ endorsement of gender stereotypes for children’s competencies in fourth grade. Research so far has shown inconsistent effects of teachers’ stereotypes and teachers’ ratings of abilities in the domains of reading and mathematics on students’ abilities in those domains (e.g., Carlana, 2019; Heyder et al., 2019; Retelsdorf et al., 2015).
In this study, we focus on the relationship between teachers’ stereotypes regarding differential abilities of boys and girls in mathematics and reading and children’s competencies in mathematics and reading in elementary school. Using data from 3669 fourth-grade students (51.9% female) and their teachers (N = 591; 88% female) of the German National Educational Panel Study (Blossfeld et al., 2011), we found teachers express gender stereotypes regarding reading competence but not regarding mathematical competence. In particular, they rate girls as having higher competencies in reading than boys.
In multilevel analyses no cross-sectional effect between teachers’ stereotypes and children’s gender was found on the competencies of students in mathematics or reading. Analyses also revealed no main effect of teachers’ stereotypes on students’ competencies.
The discussion will focus on the limitations of a cross-sectional design as well as the finding of teacher stereotypes only being present in regards to reading but not mathematics.
Besides acquisition of academic competencies, well-being is an important educational goal and it has been shown that both outcomes are mutually dependent. However, until now, most studies used cross-sectional designs so that the direction of the relation is not yet fully understood. In the present study we used longitudinal data from students attending grades 5 to 9 who participated in the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS). We analyzed reciprocal relations between different facets of well-being (i.e., physical, cognitive, emotional) and academic achievement. Furthermore, we examined differences between gender and type of school in these reciprocal relations. Results revealed mainly positive reciprocal relations between academic achievement and different indicators of well-being. However, multi-group models did not show differences between gender and type of school. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.
Nations all around the world seek to improve their education system. Teachers are viewed as important stakeholder to achieve this goal (Desimone et al., 2006; Hattie, 2012). For instance, teachers need to engage in professional learning throughout their teaching career as learning environments are constantly evolving. Recent research articulated affordances of participation in a broad variety of different PD activities (e.g., workshops, mentor programs) to improve teachers’ knowledge and skills and to change teachers’ attitudes and beliefs (Borko et al., 2010; Darling-Hammond et al., 2017). However, research on teacher characteristics (e.g., workload) and contextual characteristics (e.g., reimbursement), which are associated with choosing a rather diversified (i.e., modern) vs. a rather homogeneous (i.e., traditional) PD activities, is limited. Specifically, predictors that examined changes in teachers’ PD participation were not investigated so far. Both, knowledge on such characteristics and predictors of change are key factors to inform education policy and better match the supply structure to teachers’ needs. Therefore, this study investigates teacher PD participation patterns from both a cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective. We used data from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS) with a full sample of N = 3,539 teachers utilizing information on teachers’ PD enrollment across three years. Results from latent class and multiple group analyses suggest that teachers who show higher general professional engagement and who have been released from teaching for PD participation showed more diversified PD participation profiles. Interestingly, multivariate multiple linear regressions models showed that the same variables (i.e., general professional engagement, release from teaching) seem to prevent changes to less diverse PD participation profiles over time. Our study has implications for educational administration and practice (e.g., better understanding of costs and benefits of diversified PD profiles; evidence to establish opportunities of leaving teachers from teaching for PD activities).
The transition from teacher training into the teaching profession is often incoherent and may lead to a reality shock (Alles et al., 2019). But not all teacher education students take this step and do not enter the teaching profession which is seen as one problem that leads to teacher shortage (Carlsson et al., 2019; Rots et al., 2010).
In Germany, teacher education students graduated from university need to complete an up to two year long induction phase in order to finish their teacher training (Terhart, 2007). Induction phase should provide integrated knowledge by linking theoretical knowledge with practical implementation. It has been shown that well performed induction is beneficial for job satisfaction, teacher efficacy as well as retention (Dicke et al., 2016; Ingersoll & Smith, 2004). Factors that influence the transition from graduation to induction phase has been rarely researched in Germany.
Rots et al. (2010) developed and tested an explanatory model based on social and learning theory of career for the decision of graduates to enter teaching profession. Following this model, the decision is influenced by experience made in teacher education program, integration into teaching, teaching commitment, initial motivation for teaching as well as external influences.
We analyze data of the student cohort from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS; Blossfeld et al., 2011). The sample contains an over-sampling of students who started a teacher education program in winter term 2010/11 in Germany. First results indicate, that 2.140 persons in our sample entered the induction phase or even skipped it and started working as a teacher after graduation. However, a proportion of 570 graduates did not make the transition yet. In further analyses we plan to use path models in order to investigate factors that predict the transition from graduation to induction.
Choosing a career is an important and often difficult life decision. To aide in this decision-making process a student may seek out information or even counselling to solve, among other issues, information deficits (Holland & Holland, 1977). Retrospectively, German students often claim false study expectations to be a major reason for dropout (Heublein, Hutzsch, Schreiber, Sommer, & Besuch, 2010) which suggests an information deficit at the beginning of their studies (Klein & Stocké, 2016).
A sample of German university students from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS; SC5:14.0.0), who rated different information sources for making their study decision, were used to answer whether less informed students were less successful, or if they dropout with false study expectations.
Four groups with different levels of information deficits were compared. Very well informed students were best prepared for university overall, had the highest study satisfaction, the best grades after one year, a significantly lower dropout intention, and the lowest false study expectations as a reason for dropout. Interestingly, the Rather well informed group present a similar intention to dropout and false expectation at dropout out as the two less informed groups, and a poorer study satisfaction than the Not informed group. The Poorly informed students presented results consistent with the research question, although very few indicated being poorly informed. The Not informed students had reasonably high study satisfaction although very few provided any grades after one year.
In line with Klein & Stocké (2016), all three groups who were not optimally informed presented false study expectations as playing a greater role in their reason for dropout. This study suggests that students who are not completely satisfied with the information they use to plan their studies show similarly poor results on important indicators of success as their poorly informed or uninformed counterparts.
In Germany, educational success is still strongly dependent on social background (Autorengruppe Bildungsberichterstattung 2020). However, indicators such as the parents' occupational status, income or educational level offer a rather limited perspective on the impact of the family of origin (Stoye 2016). Siblings and their educational pathways and successes also seem to play a role in explaining the relation of social origin and educational success and broaden the perspective on the family system.
Previous research on the impact of siblings has usually followed an economic approach based on the distribution of resources (e.g. Blake 1981; Downey 1995; Steelman et al. 2002). Since having more children means that the parents have fewer resources per child, siblings are rather seen as a negative factor. In contrary, this article refers to the work of Bourdieu (e.g. 1973; 1984). The advantage of the chosen theoretical approach is the addition of intra-family socialization processes and transmission mechanisms. Therefore, a possible positive effect of having an older sibling is expected. This is especially true in the transition to secondary school, where an older sibling can e.g. provide access to valuable knowledge. In particular, it is examined if educational success and experience of older siblings have an impact on the aspirations, the joy of learning and the willingness to make an effort – all indicators of an educational habitus –and therefore, on the transition to upper secondary school of younger siblings.
Based on NEPS data of Starting Cohort 2 (Blossfeld, Roßbach & von Maurice 2011), the research question will be investigated within the framework of a structural equation model and multi-group-analysis. First results show that when controlled for educational success of an older sibling, the often-found negative effect of the number of siblings disappears. Also, having an older sibling that attends Gymnasium or has Abitur enhances the probability of transition to Gymnasium.
This study analyzes class origins, social mobility and educational and occupational trajectories among Germans citizens using the National Educational Panel Study adult cohort survey (N=9,099). Relative to one’s origins, and using ordinal logistic modeling techniques, I first analyze the educational pathways that individuals of distinct social background tend to follow. Social origins matter, and significantly, for if and where one graduates, with respondents of the highest social origins graduating from the university and individuals of the lowest social origins attending the least prestigious education options. Secondly, my analyses interrogate the labor market implications of these patterns, focusing specifically on respondents’ eventual occupational status and income levels. Generally, social mobility relative to one’s parents only appears to occur for individuals with mid-tertiary degrees, but not for degrees of higher or lower prestige. This U-shaped relationship between social origins, education, and occupational destinations, recently seen in research from France and the United States, likewise appears to be prevalent in Germany despite unique economic and education structures. I finish with a comparison of the countries’ education systems to explore how the theories Maximally and Effectively Maintained Inequality explain this trend. In each country, I find that elite institutions entail barriers and costs that oftentimes preclude students from working-class backgrounds. Meanwhile, these students are siphoned into degree-seeking options which expedite students’ financial earning opportunities but hinder their occupation and earning capabilities. The bulk of my results point to some reproduction of existing inequalities within higher education and an important interaction between origins, career development and occupational trajectories that should be of interest to researchers and policymakers alike.
Background: There are still differences in the educational achievements between children with and without migration background in Germany, with a lower socioeconomic status influencing the qualification of children with migration background negatively. Lesser is known about the influencing factors on participating in institutionalized leisure activities, like sports clubs or youth groups.
Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the influence of parental resources on the leisure activities of children with and without migration background between the ages 12 and 16.
Theory: The assumptions are based on Bourdieu’s theory of capital in which personal resources enable individuals to achieve social positions, when applied in the appropriate context.
Method: Cross-sectional data from the Starting Cohort 4 from the 2010 National Educational Panel Study are used (n= 7.496/ 16% migration background). The effect on the number of leisure activities is analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Binary logistic regression is applied to analyze factors influencing participation in sports clubs and religious youth groups.
Results: The main results show that children with migration background participate less, which is partly explained by fewer socioeconomic parental resources. Being married and living in western Germany show favorable effects on the participation. Children with migration background benefit less from the cultural capital of their parents. There seems to be a threshold in which additional resources do not promote further participation regardless of migration background. The transition from one to two or more activities is largely unexplained by parental capital. Different kinds of activities seem to demand different forms of capital, with more economic resources in sports clubs and cultural resources in religious youth groups.
Conclusion: This study shows that sociodemographic characteristics and migration background affect the participation and kind of institutional leisure activities of children, with different implementation possibilities of these resources for children with migration background and depending on the kind of activity.
back to top